Pasighat-My love of a lifetimes….

Orange festival,Dambuk, Arunachal Pradesh 15Dec-18Dec 2016..Artists Lineup so far…

Satellite view of Ranaghat Bridge, Siang River, Pasighat

Satellite view of Ranaghat Bridge

Miri- The First Mising Rock Band

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via Miri- The First Mising Rock Band.

Fishing At Oyan River, NH 52

Fisherman at Oyan river at Oyan Village

Revisited view from Ranaghat Bridge, Siang River, Pasighat II

Ranaghat Bridge over Siang River, Pasighat
Ranaghat Bridge over Siang River, Pasighat
 

Revisited view from Ranaghat Bridge, Siang River, Pasighat

view from Ranaghat Bridge, Siang River, Pasighat
view from Ranaghat Bridge, Siang River, Pasighat

THE RIVER SYSTEM OF ARUNACHAL PRADESH

Subansiri River

Subansiri River

  THE RIVER SYSTEM OF ARUNACHAL PRADESH

It may not be wrong to speculate that, but for the existence of Punjab in India, Bibhabasu das Shastri, the then Director of Research in the Government of Arunachal Pradesh, who was credited with giving the name “Arunachal Pradesh” to the then NEFA, in 1972, would have named it Punjab, since the five major rivers of this state, namely KAMENG, SUBANSIRI, SIANG, TIRAP and LOHIT, have been associated with the region from the very early times. Anyway, a speculation apart, Arunachal Pradesh is drained by innumerable rivers and a number of streams that drain the area almost throughout the year.

Starting from the west, in the Kameng district the first noteworthy river is the Nyamjang Chu, also called Dargong, drawing the waters of Mela ridge.  Then, there is the river Namka Chu, which assumes the name of Tawang Chu. The Kameng river starts at the Kameng  range at a height of 3000 mts, which is fed by the Dirang river, which flows through the Se La Pass. Other important rivers of the district are the Bhorelli, the Bichom and the Tengapani rivers. The long and narrow valley at the foot of Bomdila range is intersected by many streams, all of which are not perennial. The important river is the Daphla Kho, which flows into the basin of the largest river of Kameng, the Bhorelli. From the south-west direction, the Rupa river runs through the Sherdukpen Hills and joins the Kameng river. The rivers of the eastern Kameng hills flow in the south-westernly direction and the rivers in the western flow in the south easternly direction.

Kameng River

Kameng River

The main rivers of the Subansiri district are the Subansiri, Kamla, khru, Panior, Par and Dikrang. The life-line of the river system of the district is Subansiri which makes its way across the entire length of the territory flowing from north-west to south-east, also marking approximately the eastern boundary of the district. The headwater of the river in Tibet is formed by Char Chu, Chayal Chu and Yume Chu rivers. The Kamla river forms an important part of the Subansiri drainage system. It immerges from the confluence of a number of amall rivers cascading down from the noth-western snowy heights of the district. It may not be wrong to say that the Kamla river is the Nile of the Apatani valley. The Khru river is a turbulent river and like the Kamla, cuts through precipitous gorges. River Dikrang is formed by Par, Norochi and Pachin rivers. 

 

Moving to the east, the main rivers in the Siang district are Siang and Siyom, flowing in a north-sough direction. The Siang, also called Dihang, is known as Tsangpo in its upper course in Tibet. The river, originating in Tibet, makes its way into the Indian territory east of Gelling. In Arunachal, the river covers a length of about 250 kms., and is fed by many tributaries of which Siyom, Yame and Yang Sang Chu are worth mention. The Siyom river rises from the Pari mountains in the Mechuka area and flowing east through the areas of the Membas, the Ramos, the Pailibos and the Bokars, merges with the Siang river near Pangin. Another river of the Distric worth note is Simen, which emargs from high hills of Basar, and flowing southwards merges with Brahmaputra.

In the Lohit district, the main rivers are the Lohit, the Dibang, the Kamlang and the Nao-Dihing. River Lohit is called Tellu by the Mishmis. It originates from the mountains across the north-east border, i.e. from China where it is called Zayul Chu. River Lohit has a course of about 190 kms. Through steep hills and valleys before it reaches the plains at Parsuram Kund. The Dibang is the main river of the western part of the district. Originating from the southern flank of Great Himalayan Ranges, it flows from north to south and finally meets river Lohit near Sadiya. This river is called a Talon by the Indus and changes its course very often in the foothill region, thereby making it almost impossible to bridge it. The plains towards the south of the district are drained by the Kamlang and the Nao-Dihing rivers. The main tributaries of the Nao-Dihing in the Lohit district are Dirak on the left bank and Tengapani on the right bank. The Kamlang rises from the Galo in Wakro and flows in an east-westernly direction to finally meet the Lohit river.

Most of the rivers in the Tirap district flow east to west. The major rivers of this area the Nao-Dihing, the Burhi-Dihing, the Tirap, the Namsang, the Namphuk and the Namphai. The Noa-Dihing flows east-west through the entire north-eastern and northern stretch of the district and meets the Lohit river near Namsai in the Lohit district. One of its major tributary is the Dapha river. River Burhi-Dihing, flowing south-west, joins the Brahmaputra near Borgohaingaon in Assam. The Namphuk, the Namchik, the Namsang, the Namphai and the Tirap rivers are its main tributaries. The Tirap river originates from a high peak between Laju and Wakka in the south-western region. It flows from south-west to north-east through Tirap district and then turns north and due west in the plains to join the Burhi-Dihing near Ledo. Some other rivers in the district are the Tisa, the Taken, The Tiking, the Tising ju and Tewai.

THE MURDER IN 1911

THE MURDER IN 1911

Captain Neol Williamson was the Assistant Political Officer at Sadiya in the beginning of the 20th century and wedded to the ideas of British imperialism thoroughly. Within a very short time of his appointment, he toured into the interiors of the north-eastern hills and very often crossed the line of his jurisdiction. In the year 1908, Williamson toured the Pasi, Gallong and Minyong village around the present day Pasighat. In the following year he again made the tour in Lohit valley, this time going beyond the ’Outer line’. He also toured the Abor hills going along the course of Dihang river and went upto Kebang village. During this tour, he was accompanied by Colonel D.M. Lumsden and W.L.B. Jackman, a member of the American Mission at Sadiya. Williamson and his party could not go beyond the Kebang Village due to an inter-tribal war between the Pangis and the Minyongs.

 The main objective of these tours was to gather detailed knowledge of the tribal land, explore the possibilities of the trade route through these hills to Tibet and to ascertain the extent of the Chinese influence in this area. The Adis, however, were always suspicious of these tours since during tours, they were not only required to work as porters but were also supposed to provide ration supply to the touring party without any substantial payment. Besides, the  tribals were also haunted by a common sense of insecurity and humiliation. To a primitive people, with their distinctive native culture, institutions and values, the activities of the British amounted to a direct interference in their freedom and the imposition of an alien culture on them. Like any other tribal society which valued its freedom more than anything else, this was causing irritation among the Adis. The result was explosive, leading to the murder of Williamson and his party in 1911.

 Noel Williamson was determined to penetrate into the hills with a view to fulfill his objective and once again, therefore, 1911, he penetrated again into the Mishmi hills upto Walong. There he noticed the Chinese flag at Menikari and was also reported the Chinese occupation of Rima. Noticing the Chinese activities In the Mishmi Hills he became concerned about the lot of the Abor Hills; immediately after his return from the Mishmi hills. He, therefore, chalked out a programme of tour into Abor hills. From the Chinese action he had seen in the Mishmi Hills, he at once realize the necessity of finding out the extent of the Chinese influence in these hills. Thus in 1911, Williamson ventured on another expedition of the Adi Hills that was to make an important landmark in the history of the North East.

Before proceeding to see the expedition of Williamson in 1911, let us have a look at the rules and regulations of the Government concerning such expeditions. the orders relating to the tours beyond the area of political control on the north-east border of India were  summed up briefly in the rule that the sanction of the Local Government must first be obtained in all cases. When such tours were likely involve complications that could demand the sending of a punitive expedition, the tour could not be permitted without the prior permission of the Government of India. All the official records reveal that Williamson had failed to get the necessary sanction of the Government before he started his tour of the Abor Hills in 1911.

During this expedition, Willamson was accompanied by 34 Gurkhali coolies, 10 Miris, 2 orderlies and three servants. Besides, Dr. J.D. Gregorson, a successful doctor in medical charge of the European and native staff of an important tea garden at Tinsukia and Lakhimpur, who took a deep interest in the tribes of the Hills, also accompanied Williamson. On 18thMarch, 1911, the party reached Rottung and halted there for the night. During that night, some provisions and a case of liquor was stolen from the camp by some tribal people. Williamson asked the  village people that the guilty were to be presented before him when he returned back from his journey. The naturally made the village people very angry, since Williamson had the guts to threaten the Adis in their own land. It is suggested that the plan to murder the entire party was discussed by the villagers the same night. This was even reported to Williamson, but he did not pay any attention to it. He was confident that the Adis would not attack him since as per the nature of the Adis, they are stronger in deliberation than in action. On the next day the party marched upto Pangi village and stayed there waiting for the arrival of the porters. On the 28th March, a Mising servant, Manpur, was sent back to Rottung with some sick coolies and some letters. Manpur, it was reported, told to the people of Rottung that he had come to take more sepoys into the hills so that the Adis could be punished. This false statement on the part of Manpur agitated the tribals who killed the four men and marched upto Pangi to take action against Williamson and his party.

On the fateful day of 30th March, Willamson marched further from pangi, leaving Dr. Gregorson and three coolies in the camp. The tribals, gathering more men at Kebang and Babuk villages, came to the Pangi camp and killed Dr. Gregorson and the three coolies. They they followed Williamson who had reached Komsing village, which is 80 miles from the present day Pasighat. On the morning of 31th March, 1911, the furious tribals arrived there and in the broad daylight, Williamson and his party was murderd at 10:00 a.m. Only a few managed to escape to relay the news of this murder at Sodiya.

Moshup and Rasheng- The Social Institutions of Adi tribe

The social institution that forms an important part of the social life of most of the tribes in the existence of the Dormitories or communal barracks or bachelor’s quarters.

Amongst the Adis these Dormitories are called MOSHUP (for boys) and RASHENG (for girls). The basic idea behind these institutions to create a habit of discipline amongst the children and also to create a feeling of cooperation. The Moshup is normally situated in the centre of the village and is constructed at a place from which different approaches to the village can be seen. These dormitories are used as the sleeping houses by all the youngmen of the village from the age of ten till marriage. The Moshup, sometimes has its advisory board comprising of the old and experience people. They advice the young members on the matters of community life, hunting, etc. etc.. The old and infirm members of the village also came to Moshup in the day time to get-together and gossip. Guests and visitors are also entertained here and kebangs are also held here.

The RASHENG or the girls dormitories was meant for the gaiety, amusement and the art and regulation of love-making. This rasheng is purely secular in nature and has no religious significance. After reaching puberty, girls sleep in their respective clan Rashengs. During the day time it is generally vacant but at night spinning and weaving is carried out here. A senior experience girl normally supervises the Rasheng. It is a training institution for the girls in discipline, comradeship, responsibility and leadership. The romantic life of a girl starts here. Young boys from different clans come and join the girls at night and the affairs of the boys and girls of marriageable clans generally lead to marriage. Thus the Moshup and rasheng of the Adis are the central institution where the boys and girls received practical training in traditional mode of life.  

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