House of Adi tribe-Arunachal Pradesh

The houses of the tribes of Arunachal Pradesh represent the traditional style of constructing the dwellings from the locally available materials and the size of the houses depends on the family patterns of the tribes. Since the living conditions are very tough in this area, the houses of the tribes are constructed to meet the challenge of nature.

adi house

Adi house

The Adis construct their houses either on the plain-level ground or on the sloping ground. The size of the house depends on the family and the style of the house also differs from area to area. These traditional houses are constructed with bamboos, woods, canes, leaves etc. And no nail is used in their construction. The house raised well above the grounds with the help of stilts. On the sloping grounds, the shortest posts are nearest to the upper ground and longest are away from it. On theses stilts are tied wooden beams and thus the level floor is made. The roof is made by dry paddy straws, dry Tokow leaves or thatch grass. The Adi house has no windows and there are two doors, one in the front for male members and the other at the back for women. Normally, there is big hall in every house which serves the purpose of sleeping, living, cooking, dining, etc. Some house has divided into many chambers and married couples and young girls have separate rooms. Every house has one or more fire places. The space between the floor and the ground is used for keeping domestic animals like cows, the pigs and collection of dry fire-woods. The Adis keep all their articles of daily use such as fishing nets, utensils, baskets, agricultural implements and looms etc. Inside the house.  In the front of Adi house has an open balcony where the whole family can sit and gossip.

With some local variations of design and style, the household articles of a normal Adi tribes usually consist of brass or aluminum utensils for cooking, various types of containers made of cane or bamboo used for storing various items, mats, baskets for different uses, head gear etc. Etc… then, there are tools and other implements used for agriculture, fishing and hunting instrument used by every the tribe.

 

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Moshup and Rasheng- The Social Institutions of Adi tribe

The social institution that forms an important part of the social life of most of the tribes in the existence of the Dormitories or communal barracks or bachelor’s quarters.

Amongst the Adis these Dormitories are called MOSHUP (for boys) and RASHENG (for girls). The basic idea behind these institutions to create a habit of discipline amongst the children and also to create a feeling of cooperation. The Moshup is normally situated in the centre of the village and is constructed at a place from which different approaches to the village can be seen. These dormitories are used as the sleeping houses by all the youngmen of the village from the age of ten till marriage. The Moshup, sometimes has its advisory board comprising of the old and experience people. They advice the young members on the matters of community life, hunting, etc. etc.. The old and infirm members of the village also came to Moshup in the day time to get-together and gossip. Guests and visitors are also entertained here and kebangs are also held here.

The RASHENG or the girls dormitories was meant for the gaiety, amusement and the art and regulation of love-making. This rasheng is purely secular in nature and has no religious significance. After reaching puberty, girls sleep in their respective clan Rashengs. During the day time it is generally vacant but at night spinning and weaving is carried out here. A senior experience girl normally supervises the Rasheng. It is a training institution for the girls in discipline, comradeship, responsibility and leadership. The romantic life of a girl starts here. Young boys from different clans come and join the girls at night and the affairs of the boys and girls of marriageable clans generally lead to marriage. Thus the Moshup and rasheng of the Adis are the central institution where the boys and girls received practical training in traditional mode of life.  

The Origin and Migration of Adi Tribe Part I- Compensated by the oral tradition of the people in the form of Legends, Myths, Folklores and Sayings etc.

The Origin

The Adis do not have any historical records in the want of a language; but this is compensated by the oral traditions of the people in the form of legends, myths, folklores, proverbs and sayings etc. These oral traditions are reflected in Abangs, Ponungs, Abes etc. The oral religious literature of the Adis is mainly represented by rhapsodies known a Abangs, relating to the mythe of creation, origin of social institutions and history of the people. The Ponungs are nothing but legthy ballads, drawing their themes from Abangs, highlighting the origin of different things including the Adis race itself. The Abes may be considered as the political literature of the people and the term is used to mean the introductory speeches given by the Kebang. An elderly person gifted with powers of good oratory is called the Kebang Abu, who traces the origin and migration of the people of the central zone of Arunachal from Uli, Usha and kumting in Tibet in a poetic language. There are dozens of myths currents among the Adis which talk about their origin and migration. The task of tracing the origin and migration of the Adis was taken over by various foreign scholars in the 19th and the early part of the 20th century.

William Robinson was the first European scholar to draw a connected account of the tribes and, as quoted, the difficulty in lifting up “ the dark veil which conceals the origin of the tribes”. John Butler thinks the Adis,“to be the descendents of the tortar race” by observing their physical features. Father Kreek believe that the Padams stood midway between mongoloid and Caucasian race and referred to a popular tradition about the origin of the padam people. He recollected a story that when the earth was full of mud, God came down from heaven and made two brothers and sisters with a handful of mud. The padams descended from the elder and the Miris from the younger brother. E.T. Dalton also tried to trace the origin of the Padams from an older son of a woman in the beginning of the earth. G.W. Beresford believes that all the Adis acknowledge a common origin from the Bor Abors. G.D.S. Dundar has also tried to trace the traditional origin of the tribes. R.C.R. Gumming refers that all the Adis claim their origin form some race tribes settled a Killing in Bomo-janbo country. According to a popular version,” in the beginning there was only darkness, and out of the union of the sky(Melo) and the earth(Sedi) things were born. Pedong nane who descended from Sedi-Melo were married to Yidum Bole and out of their union was born Donyi, the first man”. Dr. Verrier Elwin has collected some myths referring to Donyi or Tani as the first man on the earth.

Different branches of the Adi families however, have their own myths and traditions regarding their origin and migration. The Padam Minyong myths refer that keyum was the first in the line of creation. After a few generations came sedi who is believed to be the creator of the world. Pedong nane was the sixth generation of Sedi who gave birth to different gods, goddesses, spirits and animals and Donyi or tani was the youngest issues of Pedong Nane. This group of the adis regard Donyi or Tani as the common ancestor of the Adis. It is also believed that Pedong’s son was Dobir who had a son named Dirbo, and he had a number of sons. One of the sons of Dirbo was Bome from whom the Padams descended and the other was Banyo from whom the Minyongs descended. This myth of origin is also prevalent amongs Pasis, Panggis, karkos, Shimongs, Milangs and the Eastyern Adi groups.

 The myths of the Galo group of   Adis trace their origin from Sichi. They believed that after a few generations from Sichi, Tani, the first man was born and it was from him that all the sub-tribes of the Galo groups like the Pailibos, Bokars, Ramos etc.., came into being. The Pailibos claims to be the descendents of Sichi, the mother earth and recounts the story of the creation of different clans of the Pailibos from the descendents of Sichi or Sichang. The Bokars claims their descent from the first man Abo Tani and belives that one of the off-spring of Abo Tani was Dungume from whom runs the direct line of descent of the present day Bokars. The ramos attribute their origin to the union of Medoang (the sky) and Seaching(the earth) and consider Donyi (the sun) and Polo(the moon) as their first issues. As per their oral tradition, Donyi and Polo have gone to stay with medong(the sky) but the ramos have stayed back with their mother Seaching(the earth). It is also held that Jomso was the common forefather of the Ramos, Bokars and Pailibos. In the Galo mythology, Jimi is the creator who created Mrdo(the sky) and sichi(the earth) and from their union started the human race. The first child was Sibuk and one of his descendant was Tusi whose son was Rimi or Tani, the father of the man. Tani is the common father of man, as acknowledged by the Galos.

 

Linkages between Bio-Resources and Human Livelihood: A Case Study of Adi Tribes of Mirem-Arunachal Pradesh (India)

Linkages between Bio-Resources and Human Livelihood:

 A Case Study of Adi Tribes of Mirem-

Arunachal Pradesh (India)

Abstract

The living of man in all societies is largely guided by the availability or otherwise of natural bio-resources. However, the tribal people who are regarded as in the primitive stage and experiencing slow pace of development have a high degree of dependence on the natural resources for their livelihood. Bio – resources consist of all biotic components of environment, which have utility and function in satisfying the individual wants as well as social wants of man. Recently, the importance of the study on man and nature relationship has gained momentum globally and has emerged as main concern for both the developed and developing nations worldwide. As such, the tribal dominated areas by virtue of having the higher percentage of forest cover have become prime area for research in the world context for sustainable use of bio-resources. The State of Forest Report, 2003 has placed Arunachal Pradesh second after Mizoram in terms of forest coverage with 68, 019 sq. km. under forest cover. An analysis of the linkages between the bio – resources and human livelihoods may prove significant and helpful in attaining the first rank in the total coverage of forests in the country. The Adi tribe is a major tribal group of Arunachal Pradesh who mostly inhabit East, West and Upper Siang districts. An assessment of linkages of human livelihood and the bioresources in the Adi inhabited area proved to be helpful in the sustainable management of natural resources. A household survey with the help of suitable structured questionnaire was conducted for Mirem village. Personal interview with the village elders was an important tool for the final analysis. The study finds that these people are forest lovers and they are strongly abated with their existing forests. The traditional folk tales, festivities and myths are strongly linked with nature and deeply influenced by the forest ecology and environment. Economic activities, material culture, food habits, house-building materials, ritual performances and herbal medicine all are collected from the forests. The study found that these people are highly dependent on the bio-resources for their livelihood even in this age of scientific and technological development.

Introduction

From the beginning of human civilization, primitive human ancestors used to live in the deep jungle and were amiably nurtured by the nature. The degree of their association with the nature signifies the status of change from a rural to urban society. Tribal people form an important component of the natural ecosystem in which they are in a multiplex relationship among population of organisms for sustaining their livelihood within their habitat. The history of human development starts from their intimate association with the natural resources since time immemorial. The bio-resources which forms a major component of the natural resource, occupy a central position in tribal culture and economy. The tribal way of life is very much dictated by the nature right from the birth to death. The nature is not only their home, but also they always like and live in harmony with nature. Most of the tribes living in forests, hills, and mountains are practicing simple mode of production and have socio-political structure and religious system of their own which revolves round the surrounding natural ecosystem. The Adi tribes are a major collective tribe living in the Himalayan hills of Arunachal Pradesh (in northeastern India), and they are found in the temperate and sub-tropical regions within
the districts of West Siang, East Siang, Upper Siang, Upper Subansiri and Dibang Valley. The literary meaning of “Adi” is the Hill or mountain dwellers. The tribe consists of number of sub tribes viz. Padam, Minyong, Pasi, Bori, Bokar, Karko, Milang, Ramo, Pangi, Shimong, Ashing, Tangam, etc. They speak a language belonging to the Tibeto-Burman family. They
are believed to be the descendants of the Abo-Tani (Abo- Father; Tani- Man). The major festivals of these people are Aran, Solung, Etor and Yakjong. Like many other tribal groups, the Adi tribes also largely depend on the bio-resources for their livelihood. The living of the people is intimately linked with the bio-resources. They are dependent on the nearby forest for their daily uses. Various types of timbers, bamboos, canes, roots, leaves and fruits of medicinal value and the bark of trees are commonly used. They have faiths and beliefs linked with these resources. However, in the recent days marked changes have been seen in the relationship of people and bio-resources. The social, cultural and religious life of the Adi tribe of Arunachal Pradesh is largely determined by the environmental conditions. The social customs, beliefs, faith, tradition, culture, etc. reflect the imprint of the nearby forest resources.

Study Area

 The study area is just 22 Km away from Pasighat, the district headquarters of East Siang district. The latitudinal and longitudinal extension of the village is roughly in between 270 56′ 06″ N to 270 57′ 43″ N and 950 11′ 44″ E to 950 12′ 43″ E. It is one of the important villages under Bilat circle of East Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh. It has the largest number of households and total population as per the Census of 2001. The village was shifted from Mishing (former) to Mirem (present) in the year 1948. The name of the village Mirem has been derived from two Adi terms ASI-MIREM, Asi meaning water and Mirem meaning rich. As the name suggests the village has number of natural source of drinking water in its vicinity. According to the household survey conducted in the year 2008, the village consists of 253 households (household size of 6.3). Out of the total households the Adi Minyong sub tribe has 86.6% household, Gallong sub tribe occupies 5.06% household, Adi Pasi sub tribe has 4.08% household and 3.7% households are occupied by the Adi Pangi sub tribe. Majority of the people believe in Donyi – Poloism, which is a type of animism. About 57.6% of the households believe in the traditional Donyi-Polo religion, 26.3 % beliefs in Christianity and rest of 16% believes in other religions. As per 2001 census the total population of the village is 1605, out of which male constitutes 822 and female 783. The sex ratio is 953 female per thousand male which is higher than the sex ratio of the district, i.e. 937. The total scheduled tribe population of the village is 1473 (91.8 %) 132 others (labourers, nepalis, employees, etc.) and no scheduled caste population. The literacy rate is 68.3%, which is higher than the literacy rates of East Siang district (61.22%) and the state (54.74%) as per 2001 census. The male literacy rate of

76.1 % is higher than the female literacy rate of 60.4 %. However, the gender gap in literacy rate is only 15.7 % which is less in comparison to other parts of the state.

 Objectives

 The basic objective of present investigation is to study the linkages between bio – resources and the livelihood of Adi tribes of Mirem village, Arunachal Pradesh (India). It would also highlight the significance of bio-resources in the economy, material culture, food habits, ethnomedicine and other socio-religious requirements of the people.

 Observation/Finding

Bio-resources and economic activity

 The economy of tribal people is largely based on the bio-resources. Their economic conditions mainly depend on the form of agriculture that they practice. Agriculture contributes an important share in the economy of these people. The nature of the terrain has forced them to follow both Jhum/shifting cultivation and Wet Rice Cultivation. Jhum fields lies away from the villages within a radius of 2-3 km on the convenient slopes of the hills. Nowadays a tendency to move towards lower areas is remarkably observed because of modern facilities and scope for terracing and irrigation. But, still Jhum is the common agriculture system practiced by the people. Wet rice cultivation is mostly found in the lower reaches of the area where there is almost flat surface. The important crops grown in the jhum field and wet rice field are Rice, Maize, Millets, Oilseeds, Potato, Ginger, etc. The agricultural productivity in the area is low, which can be attributed to the old traditional way of agricultural practice with indigenous implements. Collection of forest products, fishing and hunting also form a part of their economy. Shifting cultivation is an integral part of tribal culture. Shifting cultivation grows out of a particular mental outlook of the tribal people and affects all the other spheres of their cultural life. Shifting cultivation is firmly rooted in the religion and mythology of tribal people. They largely depend on shifting cultivation, which has a strong utilization linkage with the natural resources. Food gathering is a supplementary source of livelihood for the people. They depend on the forests for the requirements of vegetables, fruits, barks, edible plants and leaves, etc. Some of the forest products are collected throughout the year while some others are collected for six months only. Collection of edible food items from the forest is done to supplement the shortage of food requirements. Collection of leafy vegetables, mushrooms and other edible items are mainly done by the woman, which is accompanied by their children. Women are considered as the most efficient in collection of vegetables. They have an instinct to locate the place where an edible tuber is available or from where they can get some vegetables. The collection of fruits, roots and nuts are done by both male and female. Fruits are collected in particular seasons. Hunting is one of the important aspects of their food quest. Hunting is mostly done when they are free from engagements in their fields. The animals hunted are Deer, Bear, Monkey, Wild boars, Elephant, Tiger, etc. The thick forest around the settlements compel them to pass through deep jungle and the urge for self defence mechanism against the wild life had made them to become good archers. As such hunting became part of their life and through this they supplement their shortage of food supply. Fishing is also an important part of their economy. Fish form an important item of their diet. Fishing is done either by the community as a whole or by individuals. The rivers or streams of the area are endowed with varieties of fresh water fishes. Besides, fish farming in the ponds provides gainful employment to the people and contributes in the generation of income.

 Bio-resources and material culture

 The material culture of the village is largely dependent on the surrounding natural bio-resources. The climatic condition and edaphic conditions of the area facilitate luxuriant growth of different species of Bamboo, cane and reed that provides raw materials for construction of their house as well as other essential articles of their daily use like basket, bag, cap, etc. The materials are collected from the surrounding forest. The neighbouring jungle and forests provide the materials for construction of house such as bamboo, cane, thatch / hay, palm leaves, wood, etc. except few cemented buildings. The houses are made with the help of wood beam and bamboo structures. Wood is used in the form of posts for which tall, straight trees are cut and the branches and barks are removed. Different varieties of bamboo are used for different purposes. Cane is used to tie the pieces of bamboo and timber together. The roof is thatched with dry tek anne (Livistona jenkinsiana) and ammung (Erianthus sp.) The whole house is a work of bamboo and wood, bamboo sheets forming the floor and the wall and the wooden logs serving as the main pillars over which the structure of the house is raised. Almost all houses are made in rectangular form having two or three doors according to the individual will and fashion. The doors have wooden ladder leading to the ground. The most important feature is the fire place (meram). Over the fire hearth (perap) hangs a square-shaped bamboo shelf used to dry meat, fish, etc. Meram is prepared with the help of bamboo, wood, soil and cane. Some of the varieties of bamboos viz. Dendocalamus hamiltonii, Arundinaria sp., Bambusa tulda, and B. pallida are used for wall, floor and ropes for binding the poles. House is decorated with skulls of Mithuns, jaws of Pigs and wild boars on the wall. The regum (pigsty) is separated by a small platform outside the house. The regum is also constructed with the help of bamboo,wood, cane, and palm leaves. The space between the floor and ground is used to keep Pigs. Granaries (kumsung) are constructed few meters (10-15 m) away from the main village for protection against fire. Present investigation has revealed that all the houses are constructed with the help of natural bio-resources which are collected from nearby forests. Details of the various bio-resources used in the construction of house are given in table 1.

 Table 1: Different species of Bamboo, Cane and Wood used for House Construction

 The various species of bamboo mentioned in the table 1 are used for floor and wall of the house. It is also sliced into small pieces to tie the roof of the house. Rattan species are used as rope to tie the roof and poles. Sometimes the leaves are used as thatching material. The trunks of the trees are used for pillars and poles of the house. Nowadays wooden planks are used for both wall and floor. There are many household articles, which are made of wood, leaves, bamboo, cane, animal bones and skin, etc. These items are collected or gathered from the forest resources. The household materials like handicraft, utensils etc. used by the people are given in Table 2.

 Table 2: Various Forest Products used by Adis in sustaining their Domestic Livelihood System.

 The Agriculture implements of the people, according to their functions and purpose, may be divided into two categories – (i) Implements and equipments associated with shifting cultivation and (ii) Implements and equipments associated with the wet rice cultivation. The implements associated with shifting cultivation are:

 Egin:- This is a big cylindrical basket made of Bamboo split and cane.

Ik:- A loop of Bamboo used for scraping up small weeds.

Lolom:- It is a stick made from bamboo used for scraping up big weeds.

Sokyap: It is small basket for carrying rich seeds at the time of sowing or dibbling. It is made of bamboo           and cane.

Petkok:- Made of small branches of tree and used during clearing of debris.

Eyok-Sobuk: It is made of bamboo or cane used during clearing and felling of trees.

 On the other hand the important implements of wet rice cultivation are Plough (Na-ngol) made of wood, Moi-Nernana, generally used for leveling the soil and clearing the debris. It is made of bamboo and cane. Besides, all the indigenous baskets like egin, epo, epu, ebong, papur are considered very essential during wet cultivation that are made of wood, bamboo and cane.

For hunting and catching animals and birds, people usually used different kind of implements made by them from Bio-resources, like Bamboo, wood, cane, etc. The Hunting implement of the people consists of gun, bow and arrow and other trappers.

 Eyyi (Bow): Bow is made of Bamboo and the string is made of a cane.

Epuk (Arrow): Arrow is made of slender Bamboo split with a pointed end.

 Yokmo: is another kind of Arrow used for killing wild big animals like Boars, Bear, Tiger, and Elephant etc. Its pointed end is fitted with a triangular piece of iron which is smeared with poison called emo (aconite) made from the roots of kinds of herbs.

 Etku: Etku is the most common implements of hunting. This is generally used for catching rat, squirrels, birds and other small animals only. The etku is prepared from Bamboo; string is especially made from ‘tabum’ (other type of Bamboo) species. Besides all these there are innumerable devices for trapping birds and animals such as eda, songkit, egum, etpeng, komang,etc.

 Bio-resources also play vital role in fishing activities of the people. For fishing they are using varieties of traps made of Bamboo, cane, wood, which are locally known as edir, porang, churi, etkong, kodong, tari. Edir is a trapping implement which is made of Bamboo splinted and tied with the help of cane. Porang is also a trapping tool. Porang is prepared from Bamboo.The upside end of the one meter length Bamboo is splinted into many but the other end kept intact. Then the splinted portion is prepared with the help of splinted tabum (other kind of Bamboo species) in such a way that it expands and make an easy passage for the fish to enter in the Porang. The shape of Ponang is conical. Huri is bigger type of Porang which is

prepared from Bamboo. Tari is one form of Porang. It is prepared by inserting thorny plant leaves so that when fishes enter the Porang the thorny leaves / plants obstruct the fishes from coming out of it. Kodong is a conical shape trappers made of Bamboo and cane used by women folk. Bokong is angling stick extracted from forest i.e. from a Bamboo species known a homing (Arundinaria sp.). During sibok (river diversion) lots of hardwood and leaves of plants and plantains (kolung) are collected for diverting the river. After diverting the river, if the river is not completely dried-up, then the leaves, barks and fruits of plants (mostly the roots of Derris scandens Benth & bark of Aesculus assamica Griff.) are used to poison the fish locally known as Tamu. Here barks of poisonous plants are used to poison the fishes for easy

catch. There are many poisonous plants, the bark of which are used in this method namely- Tanir, Taki-sidik, Ripik, Reliom, etc. There are also many toxic plants namely- Marshang (Spilanthes oleracea), Diku-Tamu (Amphineuron opulentum (Kaulf) Holttum, Onger (Zanthoxylum rhetsa), Muyum, etc. used for fish poison.

Bio-resources as food and ethnomedicine

Other than the traditional food items of modern man, like the rice, wheat, millets, etc they have a treasure house of knowledge about potential food plants from the surrounding forests. These includes leaves, stems, bark, roots, fruits of wild plants and a number of animals and insects gathered as food items. The area is very rich in various types of edible and non-edible items found abundantly in the nearby jungles. Nature has provided plenty of edible plants from which leaves, roots, fruits, flowers, seeds, tuber, etc. are taken as food. They collect those edible plants for their own consumption and other uses. If there is any excess quantity of collected materials, they sell those in the market or exchange with some other essential items of daily needs. The various edible vegetables collected from the forests are bamboo shoot

 Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Ness & Arn. ex. Munro), wild banana flowers (Musa balbisiana L.A Colla), Onger (Zanthoxyllum rhetsa DC.), Oyik (Pouzolzia benettiana Weight), Ongin (Clerodendrom colebrookianum Walp.), Rori (Piper pedicellatum C.DC.), Enge (Colocasia esculenta (L) Schott.), etc. Mushroom (Termitomyces sp. Cantherallus sp. Schizophylum sp., pleurotus Pulmonarius, Auricularia sp.) locally known as Tatar are seasonally collected and many more edible plants which are available but scientifically not known. They also eat number of fruits that are collected from the forest such as Tagung (Magnifera sylvatica Roxb.) Tapir (Phoebe sp.), Anke (Unidentified), Hillum (Canarium strictum Roxb.), Tadar (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), Tak-api (palm fruits), etc. Forest is the only source for hunting animals and birds. But hunting is never considered as an occupation. On the other hand it gets more importance as an obligatory recreation especially during some rituals and festivals, when it is performed collectively. Forest of the area provides wide range of animals of different species. Some animals such as Tiger, Wolf and Fox are not killed and consumed. These animals are killed only when they cause danger to the human beings and domesticated animals. Sometimes, these animals kill mithun (Bos fontalis), cattle and pig, etc. The other species of animals commonly eaten by the people includes Deer, Bear, Wild Boar, Monkey, Squirrel, Rat, Porcupine, Pangolin, Rabbit, Elephant, etc. Besides, there are many domesticated animals which supplement the meat requirements of the people like Mithun, Pig, Buffalo, Cow, Goat, etc.

 Table 3: Wild animals eaten by people.

Birds are elegant creatures for the Tribal societies. They hunt birds for various purposes such as to supplement diet with flesh, to procure beaks for decoration in the headgear and to test and develop hunting skills. In fact, hunting birds is a fascination to them. They are predominantly meat eaters and for procuring their meat, they largely rely on hunting. Birds are one of the major attractions to the people for hunting. Various birds eaten by them are wild fowls, hornbills, parrots (small size) (peke), Bulbul, Pigeon, Myna, Dove, etc. Birds like vulture, Sparrow, Crow, Owl are restricted for consumption to the people.

 Table 4: Some common bird species eaten by the Adi tribes.

Fish are beautiful aquatic creatures that form an important part of human diet due to richness in protein, vitamins and essential oils. Fishes are found in a variety of water bodies ranging from stagnant ponds to flowing rivers or streams. The area has diversity in different species of fishes. Different species of fishes eaten by the people are locally known as Talu, Ngopi, Tageng, kadang, Horche, Ribi, Tasum, take, etc. As per the fishery department the following species of fishes are found in the area Rohu (Labeo rohita), Labeo pangsu, Labeo sp. Glyptothrox sp., Garra sp., Abriricthes sp., Psyudochenies sp., Psilorhynchoides sp.nob, eel (Anguilla japonica), prawn (Panoles sp.), crab (Cancer sp.), etc. The surrounding forest provides various species of insects for consumption. Fish resource is declining in the village and adjoining areas since it is felt that there were more fishes in the past than now. Decline in fishes are because of rise in human population and unscientific fishing by blasting & poisoning streams with chemicals such as bleaching powder and use of generator. Besides all these the people also eat different kinds of insects seasonally. During winter season people collect Tari (Stinkbug) (Poisonous Maculiventris) from the banks of rivers. The other insects like grasshoppers, red-ant, etc. are eaten occasionally mentioned food items reveals that bio-resources form an important part of their  diet.Therefore, it can be said that they are very much dependent on the bio-resources. These edible items are important for their livelihood and also for their very existence.

Ethnomedicines

 Ethnomedicine is the belief and practice relating to health and diseases, which are products of indigenous cultural knowledge of the particular communities. Some notable progress has been made in the field of ethnomedicinal research on the tribes of Arunachal Pradesh by various scholars during last two decades and still many tribes are awaited to be explored ethno biologically in the eastern Himalayan region. The Adis of Siang region use their traditional knowledge in health care system where herbs, plants and roots of some trees and plants locally available are used for curing the ailment. They have indigenous method of treatment for different kinds of diseases with the help of local herbal medicines. They also use body parts of animals such as antelopes, bear, etc. for curing diseases of orthopedic, stomach, and liver pain etc. The common diseases what occuring in the village are dysentery, fever, malaria, jaundice, cough, fracture, etc. Villagers of the remote localities are still relaying their traditional medicines for the alleviation of the local ailments. They mostly use herbals and sometime an admixture of plants, animal and mineral substances coupled with local rituals. Some important medicinal plants used by the Adis for curing different diseases are given in the table 5.

Socio-religious life and bio-resources

There is a close relationship between forest and the religious practice of the people. They believe that there is some super natural power in everything. The natural object like mountains, hills, rivers, ponds, the sun, the moon, the earth, etc. are possessed by spirits. Donyi-Polo (The God Sun and Moon) are the main religion followed by the community of the area. Maximum numbers of people are the followers of Donyi-Polo. Besides, there are people who believe in other religion. According to the myths of the Adis, there are many deities or God to control the various parts of universe, such as Sedi-Melo-God of earth and sky, Tusin-Rodong– God of forests and Rivers, etc. The living things like trees, plants, bushes, birds, animals, etc. are all around the village situated amidst forest. The people are god-fearing and they believe that every event in their life is guided and controlled by different kinds of spirits. In present study area there are some specific plants, such as tatkeng, tapi, ta-ok, tuduk raksak, tan, etc. which plays significant role in their religious life. Similarly, ridin a creeper also plays significant role in their socio-religious life. In every religious ceremony they utilize this creeper to protect themselves from the attack of evil spirits. According to their traditional belief all the unwanted spirit are afraid of ridin and kekir (ginger sp.).

The Adis being tribal people depend on the bio-resources for socio-religious life. They depend nature for their fortunes and misfortunes. To avert misfortunes and to bring prosperity to every individual, families and to the society as a whole people celebrate many seasonal festivals like solung, etor, unying-aran, tapu, mopun, etting etc. In order to celebrate these seasonal festivals to appease the God and Goddess they use bio-resources such as plants, leaves, stems, etc. to make altars for the deities. Among the forest resources or produce, the tan, ekkam, toti, kapyum, dibang, tapi, taking, tuduk, raksak are collected and used. To erect sacrificial altar for Mithun and Pig, the trunk of tuduk, sirang, rami trees are collected. Again to prepare the altars for sacrifice or for offering, bamboo species like tabum, eyom, e-e are collected from the forest and useas rope to bind the altars. Sometimes ogik a climber is also used as rope. There are also other plant species such as noki, bumlo, Taje, the skin of which are used as rope. To make the offerings some animals are also used like keka, libo (squirrels), bungka (Rat) etc. The above mentioned Bio-resources are used in the celebration of festivals to bring prosperity to the individual, families and also to the whole community. In the socio-religious life of the people some performers namely-kebang abu (The kebang man), solung, ponung or ettor delong, the narrator of human evolution, origin of plants, animals, mankind, soil, air, water, etc and last one is Ayit-Miri (Priest) which is considered to have super natural power to heal the human sufferings. Kebang is the traditional village council of the Adi community. The role of Kebang is significant in the biodiversity conservation. Uses of bio-resources are under the purview of the Kebang. Illegal extraction of wild bamboo is prohibited by the village council for the sustainable utilization. Modern means of fishing (Blasting, Chemical poison, electric current, etc.) is not allowed as per the norms of the Kebang and violations of these norms are imposed penalty of Rs. 5000 to 10000. For the sustainable use of these resources community extraction once in a year is done under the strict vigilance of the Kebang and equally distributed to all the households of the village. During illness or suffering, the Ayit-Miri is called and the priest sings whole night and while singing he/she tells the cause of suffering and also the plants and animals to be used for making altar or for sacrifices to be made. In such illness or sufferings many different or varied leaves of plants are used according to the nature of illness and sufferings. Wild bamboo (Nyomrang e-e) and plant species locally known as talo, tapi, takeng, singkang, tatkeng, sirang, tan, takang etc. are gathered in enormous amount and used during rituals and festivals. Rodents locally known as keka, libo, bungka, kosung, etc. are used in various rituals. These plant and animal species are used for erection of altar for offering to the deities, so that they may not inflict or cause any illness to the human being. It is believed that sometimes when a person is sick just after returning from hunting or fishing, it is the evil deed of Tusin-Rodong (God of Forests and Rivers). To treat the patient and to cure, the priest (Miri) offers or performs a ritual with some special or necessary plants / bamboo extracted from the jungles. The Miri and some senior persons/experts in the community direct the person who collects the required plants and bamboos for the ritual to perform. Accordingly, the person enters the forests and collects the materials as recommended by the priest. Then the ritual is performed and finally the sick person recovers from the illness. Besides there are many more rituals performed with many other product of forest for different types of illness considered to be caused by different deities of the universe.

 Discussion

The Adi tribes of Arunachal Pradesh largely depend on the bio-resources for their economic life. People’s bio-cultural knowledge about the bio-resources has made them sustain their living through the ages. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people. Both wet rice cultivation and shifting cultivation are practiced for their livelihood. The use of indigenous implements and traditional techniques has resulted in lesser agricultural output. However, wet rice cultivation is becoming significant due to better yield in the recent days. Shifting cultivation is still practiced by the people on large scale to meet their day to day requirements. The staple food of the people that includes rice, maize, millet, vegetables, etc. is grown in the fields for self consumption and commercial purpose. But such a linkage with the forest ecology had led to the degradation of forest resources to a larger extent. There is a need strong realization through awareness campaigns to immediately check the alarming rate of deforestation in the tribal inhabited areas worldwide. Better alternatives in the form of horticulture, terrace cultivation, agro-based industries can be introduced by taking the ethnic communities in confidence to reduce the rate of deforestation. Apart from the agricultural practices these people depend on the supplementary source of livelihood for substenance such as food gathering, fishing and hunting. During the shortage of food supply from the agricultural fields they collect fruits, yams, vegetables, edible mushrooms, roots/rhizomes, stems, barks, etc. to supplement it. However, the process of food gathering is becoming a threat to the loss of important plant species. The indigenous way of forest product in not eco-friendly as some people cut the whole tree to collect fruits. Hunting is another supplementary source of sustenance. Deer, Bear, Monkey, Wild boars, Elephant, Tiger, Birds, Rodents, etc. are the important faunal species hunted by these people. Both individual and community hunting are done by them. During festivals deer, wild boar and rodents are hunted on a large scale for the celebration. As a result such species became rare and endangered in the recent decades. Fish is an important diet of the people. People use different indigenous techniques for fishing such as Sibok petnam, porang tonam, edir tonam, etc. which are eco-friendly. But, due to use of chemical poisons and blasting the population of fish has become less in the area. Very recently a new method of fishing in the form use of electric current in the rivers and streams has further decreased the fish population. The material culture of the people is largely built out of the product of natural bio-resources.wood, bamboo, palm leaves, cane, etc. It is observed in about 95% households the various items are directly collected from the natural bio-resources such as basket, mat, stool, spoon, mug & jug, bow & arrow, hunting trap, fishing tools, etc. They also have knowledge of ethnomedicines for curing various diseases. Different parts of plants and animals are used to cure various ailments such as stomachache, headache, joint / fractures, cough / flu, jaundice, dysentery / diarrhea, orthopaedic, eye infection, snake bites, etc. Bio-resources form an important part of the religious life of the people. They worship the nature viz. hills, mountains, rivers, sun, moon, etc as these provide the various requirements of the people. Such old age have led to the preservation of natural resources to a greater extent in the past. But, due to influx of modernization they are converting to different organized religions which are fading the ethnic belief systems associated with the nature. The indigenous knowledge system can be utilized through active participation of Government and Non-governmental agencies in checking the emerging harsh linkages with the nature. Such an effort can ensure the availability of resources in their vicinity for a longer period of time.

 Conclusion

The study of linkages between bio-resources and human livelihood is significant in understanding the pattern of interaction between the people and their surrounding forests. It is observed that most of the tribal people of Arunachal Pradesh prefer to live in forest environment and for their sustenance they utilize bio-resources of their immediate surrounding with their age-old traditional knowledge and technique. The way of life of the Adi tribes is closely associated with physical environment which form an inseparable component in the ecosystem and thus maintain inseparable relationship with the natural resources. The whole discussion is mostly related to the people and their dependence on the bio-resources for economic, material, social and ritual sustenance. They practice jhum/shifting cultivation for requirement of food and during the food shortage they collect various edible plant parts from the forest to supplement it. The women folk play significant role in collection of such edible fruits, roots and tubers, leaves, etc. Besides, hunting and fishing are the other supplementary source of livelihood.They have knowledge of traditional herbal medicine to cure and prevent diseases. Their traditional healing practices are largely dependent on different plants and animal species which are mostly used by few practitioners of the village who have specialized knowledge in ethnomedicines. In addition to the use of bio-resources in material culture, food, medicine and socio-religious life of the people, they conserve bio-resources in their natural habitat through clean forest management system. They narrate myths and legends about certain rare and endangered species of plants and animals at home and in public gathering to educate the younger generation for the conservation and sustainable utilization of biodiversity wealth of their concerned area. They use bamboo, cane, wood, palm leaves, vegetables, etc. for commercial purposes. For instance, bamboo shoots, baskets & mats, firewood, etc. are being sold in the local market in exchange of money. Forest products had been the articles of barter trade of the people in their neighbouring areas during the past which lost its significance at present due to emergence of market economy.

 The present study reveals that for the sake of survival in the area, people use their old age indigenous knowledge where natural bio-resources as well as natural phenomena play an important role in shaping their life and culture. Due to the increase in population leading to the knowledge of market economy the linkages between the people and the bio-resources is gearing up remarkably. Such a study in the tribal inhabited area is essential to create awareness and realization among the forest dwellers about the harsh linkages emerging out of higher level of interaction with the forest ecology. Hence, the paper is significant for the forest dwellers to asses the level of bio-resource utilization and framing strategies for sustainableutilization of forest resources in future continuum.

Article by Gibji Nimachow, Tahong Taga, Hui Tag  & Oyi Dai

ABOTANI: the primal ancestor of the Tani group of NORTH EAST INDIA

Abotani is considered the primal ancestor of the Tani group of people in Arunachal Pradesh – Apatani, Nyishi, Adi, Tagin, Hill Miri. They follow the Donyi Polo belief system and they consider Abotani as the one who firstly introduced the technique of rice cultivation.

The following story is told orally through priests Miri among the Adi people:

In older time Abotani Abo “father”, tani “human” has wandered in forest for want of food. Once he went to Takar-Taji’s place Tatar-Taji marriage ceremony where a gaur Mithun was sacrificed. Due to a trick of Abotani, Takar-Taji could sacrifice only one gaur, which was meagre for distribution to the guest. Abotani’s dog Kiipu and the deer Duumpoo shared a packet of rotten soya seeds staple food in olden days, as the use of rice millet and maize was unknown in those days. This led to quarrel between Kiipu and Duumpoo. Duumpoo the deer kicked the soya seed packet and ran away. Angry, Kiipu the dog chased the deer. Abotani had to follow both them. After many days Duumpu the deer landed in the world of Digo Ane “Keeper of Land”; digo “land”, ane “mother” where people were scattering the rice powder set on sun for drying. Duumpoo the deer was caught by these people; Kiipu the dog followed and was caught; Abotani followed them and was also caught by the peoples of Digo Ane. The three were imprisoned. After many days Abotani played a trick: he put a dead mole rat in his armpit and acted as if he were dying. This worried the Digo Ane people, lest the act may anger the Takar-Taji people, and they freed Abotani and granted him the gift of rice, millet and maize seed.

Many other legends between the Tani people speak about Abotani’s stories: a woman in the Digo Ane region told him how to cultivate the rice seeds http://wakling.com/abotani-and-the-quest-for-rice; Abotani had a lot of success in his rice cultivation thanks to his wise wife Aio Diiliang Diibiu http://arunachalipr.gov.in/StateFestival_Dree.htm; however, he divorced from her to marry another woman, and this brought disgrace to his wealth because the new wife was too much after leisures http://arunachaldiary.blogspot.com/2008/05/myoko-celebration-of-apatanis-photo.html; when Abotani realized this, he left also the second wife and continued the cultivation on his own, but still he had to ask for the help of his sister to be saved from the danger of falling from the top of a high tree where he had climbed http://arunachalipr.gov.in/StateFestival_Dree.htm. Events in the legendary life of Abotani and in his quest for rice are part of the traditions of the Tani people and are celebrated in different periods of the year following the rice cultivation season. Abotani is a symbol of the struggle of humankind for food and prosperity though in difficult situations, and of the need for harmony between man and woman to bring wealth to the family.

folk dance of the Adis

 

Ponung Dance:

It is a folk dance of the Adis. Generally, it is performed during the festival that is celebrated before the harvesting. The purpose of this festival is seeking a good harvest and welfare of the village community. Ponung is an exclusively women dance in which young married women and girls take part. The dance performance is led by a Miri, who is a man adept in mythical songs about the origin of paddy and other crops. With the singing of mythical songs of the Miri, the iron discs that are fitted loosely in the hilt of the sword are rattled. The female dancers are dancing rhythmically on this background. They are singing in a chorus. The abhanga written on the origin of paddy is sung by the Miri, at the time of dancing.

Adi village is having a rich cultural way of living. The tribal people are more famous for their Ponung, dancing with the accompaniment of songs. All the girls dance in a circle with holding each other by stretching their hands over each other`s shoulders. The Miri dances and sings in the centre of the circle. He is holding aloft and shaking a sword like musical instrument called `Yoksha`. He initiates the singing and then the girls repeat the same lines in chorus. Girls are moving in a circle & dancing rhythmically at a low pace. On all-important & auspicious occasions Ponung is performed.

Donyi-Polo (or Donyi Polo, Donyi-Poloism)

literally “Sun-Moon”, is an animist religion followed by many of the tribal groups in Arunachal Pradesh, India (including the Apatani, Adi, Miri Tagin and Nishi tribes). Some anthropologists argue that Donyi-Polo is probably derived from the pre-Buddhist Bön religion of Tibet. Donyi Polo focuses on the worship of the sun and moon, who are considered the eternal watch deities of the supreme gods, Bo and Bomong. Followers of the Donyi-Polo tradition believe that all people of Arunachal Pradesh share a common ancestry from Abotani. The religion has no written scriptures, but has traditionally been passed down orally from each generation to the next. Believers pray to a number of spirits, deities and souls for blessings, but they principally worship the sun (Donyi) and the moon (Polo) as the visible forms of the gods. Donyi-Polo includes religious rituals which coincide with lunar phases and agricultural cycles. A follower of Donyi-Polo believes in the oneness of all living creatures, from the tiniest of organisms to the mightiest of animals, and that every living creature has a role to play in his or her life. They believe that a spirit (or soul) resides within all men, plants, animals,and the land that nourishes them (all of which have a connection with humans). The major deities in the Donyi-Polo tradition, (Kine Nane, Doying Bote, Pedong Nane and Gumin Soyin) play the role of guardians for their devotees. It is there duty to show their devotees, the path which is destined for them, yet decided by themselves. Although generally losing influence with the younger generations, as growing numbers convert to Christianity, Donyi-Poloism has undergone somewhat of a revival subsequent to the efforts of Talom Rukbo, the father of the modern Donyipolo Movement in Arunachal Pradesh. Efforts are now underway to give an organized form to the traditional beliefs and values of the Arunachal Pradesh region, and to protect the locals against coerced conversion to foreign religions

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