THE MURDER IN 1911

THE MURDER IN 1911

Captain Neol Williamson was the Assistant Political Officer at Sadiya in the beginning of the 20th century and wedded to the ideas of British imperialism thoroughly. Within a very short time of his appointment, he toured into the interiors of the north-eastern hills and very often crossed the line of his jurisdiction. In the year 1908, Williamson toured the Pasi, Gallong and Minyong village around the present day Pasighat. In the following year he again made the tour in Lohit valley, this time going beyond the ’Outer line’. He also toured the Abor hills going along the course of Dihang river and went upto Kebang village. During this tour, he was accompanied by Colonel D.M. Lumsden and W.L.B. Jackman, a member of the American Mission at Sadiya. Williamson and his party could not go beyond the Kebang Village due to an inter-tribal war between the Pangis and the Minyongs.

 The main objective of these tours was to gather detailed knowledge of the tribal land, explore the possibilities of the trade route through these hills to Tibet and to ascertain the extent of the Chinese influence in this area. The Adis, however, were always suspicious of these tours since during tours, they were not only required to work as porters but were also supposed to provide ration supply to the touring party without any substantial payment. Besides, the  tribals were also haunted by a common sense of insecurity and humiliation. To a primitive people, with their distinctive native culture, institutions and values, the activities of the British amounted to a direct interference in their freedom and the imposition of an alien culture on them. Like any other tribal society which valued its freedom more than anything else, this was causing irritation among the Adis. The result was explosive, leading to the murder of Williamson and his party in 1911.

 Noel Williamson was determined to penetrate into the hills with a view to fulfill his objective and once again, therefore, 1911, he penetrated again into the Mishmi hills upto Walong. There he noticed the Chinese flag at Menikari and was also reported the Chinese occupation of Rima. Noticing the Chinese activities In the Mishmi Hills he became concerned about the lot of the Abor Hills; immediately after his return from the Mishmi hills. He, therefore, chalked out a programme of tour into Abor hills. From the Chinese action he had seen in the Mishmi Hills, he at once realize the necessity of finding out the extent of the Chinese influence in these hills. Thus in 1911, Williamson ventured on another expedition of the Adi Hills that was to make an important landmark in the history of the North East.

Before proceeding to see the expedition of Williamson in 1911, let us have a look at the rules and regulations of the Government concerning such expeditions. the orders relating to the tours beyond the area of political control on the north-east border of India were  summed up briefly in the rule that the sanction of the Local Government must first be obtained in all cases. When such tours were likely involve complications that could demand the sending of a punitive expedition, the tour could not be permitted without the prior permission of the Government of India. All the official records reveal that Williamson had failed to get the necessary sanction of the Government before he started his tour of the Abor Hills in 1911.

During this expedition, Willamson was accompanied by 34 Gurkhali coolies, 10 Miris, 2 orderlies and three servants. Besides, Dr. J.D. Gregorson, a successful doctor in medical charge of the European and native staff of an important tea garden at Tinsukia and Lakhimpur, who took a deep interest in the tribes of the Hills, also accompanied Williamson. On 18thMarch, 1911, the party reached Rottung and halted there for the night. During that night, some provisions and a case of liquor was stolen from the camp by some tribal people. Williamson asked the  village people that the guilty were to be presented before him when he returned back from his journey. The naturally made the village people very angry, since Williamson had the guts to threaten the Adis in their own land. It is suggested that the plan to murder the entire party was discussed by the villagers the same night. This was even reported to Williamson, but he did not pay any attention to it. He was confident that the Adis would not attack him since as per the nature of the Adis, they are stronger in deliberation than in action. On the next day the party marched upto Pangi village and stayed there waiting for the arrival of the porters. On the 28th March, a Mising servant, Manpur, was sent back to Rottung with some sick coolies and some letters. Manpur, it was reported, told to the people of Rottung that he had come to take more sepoys into the hills so that the Adis could be punished. This false statement on the part of Manpur agitated the tribals who killed the four men and marched upto Pangi to take action against Williamson and his party.

On the fateful day of 30th March, Willamson marched further from pangi, leaving Dr. Gregorson and three coolies in the camp. The tribals, gathering more men at Kebang and Babuk villages, came to the Pangi camp and killed Dr. Gregorson and the three coolies. They they followed Williamson who had reached Komsing village, which is 80 miles from the present day Pasighat. On the morning of 31th March, 1911, the furious tribals arrived there and in the broad daylight, Williamson and his party was murderd at 10:00 a.m. Only a few managed to escape to relay the news of this murder at Sodiya.

ADI HISTORY II

NOTE: forgive me if I am wrong or if there is any kind of spelling mistakes, please.
 HELLO! Folks:  today I am going to write a little brief on ADI history and facts that u may or may not be familiar;
             Long time back people of Adis where called as ABHOR; especially during the colonial period, and also during the reign of the AHOM EMPIRES, the term deliberately denotes barbarous or which is also kind of uncontrolled.
   ADIS where very well good warriors during its history all the time, specially the minyong, milang and padam where known to be very furious.
 Many pictures of  ADI/ABHOR; was taken  by the British  almost during  1912-1940s. But I would like to inform you that  NEFA(now Arunachal Pradesh) had its colonial  touch even before 1900s, Colonial expedition  began almost back  in 18th century too but since there is not must evidence left from those period the history can’t be traceable.  You during those time photographs were not much developed and well processed, British man Simpson took many photographs of east India tribes(NEFA), those were all back in the days of 1820s and was not well developed and not clear, so  the colonial British India had its better photography after 1990s, as Christopher pintey and john falconer  Two British man had shown  with the new technology of photography , the expedition to the hill tribes and photography of NEFA ethnics  and also classifying them and gather the information of  the subcontinent   started. And that’s the time when British came increasingly towards NEFA, although even they had to face many obstacles.
          But to tell you, I have already foretold that the expedition to the hill tribes began  long back in 1800s so i hope now you got it.

Here I will be discussing only about  ABHORS/ADIS,  even though britishers were engaged even with some other tribes.  It was in 1900s  the British was on the move of the expedition towards ADI/ABHOR region, I wont say whole the story but for your knowledge I will give in brief. I am going to the year 1905, Noel Williamson  a  British servant was posted in Sadiya as an   Assistant  political offcer , he had many guides during the expedition, if somewhere Tibetans somewhere ABHOR itself which serve as his guides and potters to the deep jungles  and mountain tracks,  there was many incident breaking out those days like British annihilate the tribal area and its people, case of Apatani incident broke out too before 1905 , well it was in the year 1905 when Political officer  Sir. Noel Williamson had gathered many valuable information from the local people, that in the  1850s there was a furious was between the ADI and British who was led  under  sergeant  Major Carter.  Now it was 1911 that officer Noel Williamson was returning from his travel from upper siang and reached Kebang village very safely and that was the 1st ever successful attempt made by the British to enter into that village since Carter’s time back in 1850s.

  So what happen is that, political officer Williamson was heading to meet the leaders of kebang village, he also knew that ADIs where looking at him very furiously, because he was aware of the war held in past years. He tried to ask permission to enter farther region of ADI/ABHORS, but couldn’t persuade them to give him permission. Very interesting happen this time is that while Williamson was in kebang , the leaders (Minyong people)from Rima village described Williamson as a “war minister”  and told the ADIS that war minister has arrived and was speaking at Kebang, He was tall had round cap made of deer skin, he had attendants too !! so tall like him, had long fur coat of Tibetan texture. He (Williamson) had a moustache; held a spear in his left hand gesticulating  from his right hand”

AT PANGIN VILLAGE


Noel Williamson was told to move back , the area was too dangerous for him to enter farther. It was n 1911 when noel Williamson was not even near Kebang, and his rations where seemed missing  so he directly accused the ADI  porters who where his guides too, the ADIS already wanted to kill him direct on the spot itself but didn’t. Very big misunderstanding evolved out due to Williamson in that situation, as he sent the MIRI’S (adi-padams) carriers to go back and bring more rations he also gave them letters e to give it to the post office on the way. T he carrier however reportedly showed the official red and black envelopes  to ADIS  and “boasted” that there was an order to punish the villagers of kebang and rotung,rima. The ADI porters who ran away from Williamsons order narrated orally “that Williamson had slapped them and accused” .  By that time 5 ADI attacked Williamson, and it was during this year 1911, political officer Noel Williamson and his partner Dr. Gregoerson was killed.

* ANGLO-ADI WAR-1   :1850s( seargeant  major carter’s period)

*ANGLO-ADI  WAR-2  : 1911 (after murder of noel wiliamson-dr.Gresgoerson)

ANGLO ADI WAR 1911

 A force of nearly 1000 soldiers, military police was sent to find the murderers of Noel Williamson and his attendants. This was a massive response from the British to ABHORS and it can  be remembered as a brutal war between the colonial and ADI people in  history. According to me this war was more deliberate in compare to Anglo-adi war in 1850s under Major Carter.

Abhors/ADIs in a camp -riga village- seeing the british officer major Bower and his troops approaching

On 18th December  the britishers camped at yambung village not very far from kebang village. On that day ADIS headmen from komsing and riu village came to the camp with a friendly manner and told the Britishers major Bower that the incident was of innocence act, this was termed by the britishers as the courage of ADI people to come and approach the British. This story was published by a British journalist at Calcutta , and  was also told that major genera Bower  believed the story narrated by  the ADI headman. But as I told before the Britishers had to catch the culprits, so there was an incident  that the British army burned down the kebang village, knowing the attack the ADIS  came down from rima-ruksin to repel the attack but they couldn’t  succeed.

PICTURE:DOWN—1/SHOWING THE BURING DOWN OF KEBANG BY THE BRITISH ARMY.

Adi KEBANG VILLAGE ATTACKED

 2/ SHOWING CAPTURED MURDERERS OF NOEL WILLIAMSON AND DR.GREGOERSON(1911)

ADIS WHO KILLED NOEL WILLIAMSON AND DR. GREGOERSON- picture showing the murderers captured and chained by the british. Matmur Jamoh accused with the other porters who where involved in killing dr.gregoerson.

Adi HISTORY BY john pebi tato

ADI NYI HISTORY I

adi warrior

 The Adi, or Bangni-Bokar Lhoba people is a major collective tribe living in the Himalayan hills of Nyingchi Prefecture, and they are found in the temperate and sub-tropical regions within the districts of East Siang, Upper Siang, West Siang and Dibang Valley. The older term Abor is a deprecated exonym from Assamese meaning ‘uncontrol’. Some of them are found in Southern Tibet (a little more north than South Tibet), around areas near the Indian border. The literal meaning of Adi is “hill” or “mountain top”.

Adi-Warriors

Tribes and organisation

The Adi live hill villages, each traditionally keeping to itself (many never leave it), under a selected chief styled Gaon Burra (British era development) who moderates the village council, which acts even as traditional court Kebang. The olden day councils consists of all the village elder and decisions were taken in a Dere (Village community house) on majority verdict. The tribes include,

adi-war-dance-dress

Language

The language spoken by this group is also called Adi, which is distantly related to the Chinese and Tibetan languages. It is spoken with minor variations among all the Adi tribes

Religion

Orgnally  as far i know Adis and all other Tani ethnics are usualyy ANIMIST.Today a growing number of Adi, especially among the youth, have converted to Christianity. Adis in Tibet, in particular the Bokars, have adopted Tibetan Buddhism to a certain extent, as a result of Tibetan influence. But in recent few years there was a revival in the faith and the search for indigenousity on the part of the people made it popular with the youth again.

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