House of Adi tribe-Arunachal Pradesh

The houses of the tribes of Arunachal Pradesh represent the traditional style of constructing the dwellings from the locally available materials and the size of the houses depends on the family patterns of the tribes. Since the living conditions are very tough in this area, the houses of the tribes are constructed to meet the challenge of nature.

adi house

Adi house

The Adis construct their houses either on the plain-level ground or on the sloping ground. The size of the house depends on the family and the style of the house also differs from area to area. These traditional houses are constructed with bamboos, woods, canes, leaves etc. And no nail is used in their construction. The house raised well above the grounds with the help of stilts. On the sloping grounds, the shortest posts are nearest to the upper ground and longest are away from it. On theses stilts are tied wooden beams and thus the level floor is made. The roof is made by dry paddy straws, dry Tokow leaves or thatch grass. The Adi house has no windows and there are two doors, one in the front for male members and the other at the back for women. Normally, there is big hall in every house which serves the purpose of sleeping, living, cooking, dining, etc. Some house has divided into many chambers and married couples and young girls have separate rooms. Every house has one or more fire places. The space between the floor and the ground is used for keeping domestic animals like cows, the pigs and collection of dry fire-woods. The Adis keep all their articles of daily use such as fishing nets, utensils, baskets, agricultural implements and looms etc. Inside the house.  In the front of Adi house has an open balcony where the whole family can sit and gossip.

With some local variations of design and style, the household articles of a normal Adi tribes usually consist of brass or aluminum utensils for cooking, various types of containers made of cane or bamboo used for storing various items, mats, baskets for different uses, head gear etc. Etc… then, there are tools and other implements used for agriculture, fishing and hunting instrument used by every the tribe.

 

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Satellite view of Ranaghat Bridge, Siang River, Pasighat

Satellite view of Ranaghat Bridge

Revisited view from Ranaghat Bridge, Siang River, Pasighat II

Ranaghat Bridge over Siang River, Pasighat
Ranaghat Bridge over Siang River, Pasighat
 

Revisited view from Ranaghat Bridge, Siang River, Pasighat

view from Ranaghat Bridge, Siang River, Pasighat
view from Ranaghat Bridge, Siang River, Pasighat

THE MURDER IN 1911

THE MURDER IN 1911

Captain Neol Williamson was the Assistant Political Officer at Sadiya in the beginning of the 20th century and wedded to the ideas of British imperialism thoroughly. Within a very short time of his appointment, he toured into the interiors of the north-eastern hills and very often crossed the line of his jurisdiction. In the year 1908, Williamson toured the Pasi, Gallong and Minyong village around the present day Pasighat. In the following year he again made the tour in Lohit valley, this time going beyond the ’Outer line’. He also toured the Abor hills going along the course of Dihang river and went upto Kebang village. During this tour, he was accompanied by Colonel D.M. Lumsden and W.L.B. Jackman, a member of the American Mission at Sadiya. Williamson and his party could not go beyond the Kebang Village due to an inter-tribal war between the Pangis and the Minyongs.

 The main objective of these tours was to gather detailed knowledge of the tribal land, explore the possibilities of the trade route through these hills to Tibet and to ascertain the extent of the Chinese influence in this area. The Adis, however, were always suspicious of these tours since during tours, they were not only required to work as porters but were also supposed to provide ration supply to the touring party without any substantial payment. Besides, the  tribals were also haunted by a common sense of insecurity and humiliation. To a primitive people, with their distinctive native culture, institutions and values, the activities of the British amounted to a direct interference in their freedom and the imposition of an alien culture on them. Like any other tribal society which valued its freedom more than anything else, this was causing irritation among the Adis. The result was explosive, leading to the murder of Williamson and his party in 1911.

 Noel Williamson was determined to penetrate into the hills with a view to fulfill his objective and once again, therefore, 1911, he penetrated again into the Mishmi hills upto Walong. There he noticed the Chinese flag at Menikari and was also reported the Chinese occupation of Rima. Noticing the Chinese activities In the Mishmi Hills he became concerned about the lot of the Abor Hills; immediately after his return from the Mishmi hills. He, therefore, chalked out a programme of tour into Abor hills. From the Chinese action he had seen in the Mishmi Hills, he at once realize the necessity of finding out the extent of the Chinese influence in these hills. Thus in 1911, Williamson ventured on another expedition of the Adi Hills that was to make an important landmark in the history of the North East.

Before proceeding to see the expedition of Williamson in 1911, let us have a look at the rules and regulations of the Government concerning such expeditions. the orders relating to the tours beyond the area of political control on the north-east border of India were  summed up briefly in the rule that the sanction of the Local Government must first be obtained in all cases. When such tours were likely involve complications that could demand the sending of a punitive expedition, the tour could not be permitted without the prior permission of the Government of India. All the official records reveal that Williamson had failed to get the necessary sanction of the Government before he started his tour of the Abor Hills in 1911.

During this expedition, Willamson was accompanied by 34 Gurkhali coolies, 10 Miris, 2 orderlies and three servants. Besides, Dr. J.D. Gregorson, a successful doctor in medical charge of the European and native staff of an important tea garden at Tinsukia and Lakhimpur, who took a deep interest in the tribes of the Hills, also accompanied Williamson. On 18thMarch, 1911, the party reached Rottung and halted there for the night. During that night, some provisions and a case of liquor was stolen from the camp by some tribal people. Williamson asked the  village people that the guilty were to be presented before him when he returned back from his journey. The naturally made the village people very angry, since Williamson had the guts to threaten the Adis in their own land. It is suggested that the plan to murder the entire party was discussed by the villagers the same night. This was even reported to Williamson, but he did not pay any attention to it. He was confident that the Adis would not attack him since as per the nature of the Adis, they are stronger in deliberation than in action. On the next day the party marched upto Pangi village and stayed there waiting for the arrival of the porters. On the 28th March, a Mising servant, Manpur, was sent back to Rottung with some sick coolies and some letters. Manpur, it was reported, told to the people of Rottung that he had come to take more sepoys into the hills so that the Adis could be punished. This false statement on the part of Manpur agitated the tribals who killed the four men and marched upto Pangi to take action against Williamson and his party.

On the fateful day of 30th March, Willamson marched further from pangi, leaving Dr. Gregorson and three coolies in the camp. The tribals, gathering more men at Kebang and Babuk villages, came to the Pangi camp and killed Dr. Gregorson and the three coolies. They they followed Williamson who had reached Komsing village, which is 80 miles from the present day Pasighat. On the morning of 31th March, 1911, the furious tribals arrived there and in the broad daylight, Williamson and his party was murderd at 10:00 a.m. Only a few managed to escape to relay the news of this murder at Sodiya.

Moshup and Rasheng- The Social Institutions of Adi tribe

The social institution that forms an important part of the social life of most of the tribes in the existence of the Dormitories or communal barracks or bachelor’s quarters.

Amongst the Adis these Dormitories are called MOSHUP (for boys) and RASHENG (for girls). The basic idea behind these institutions to create a habit of discipline amongst the children and also to create a feeling of cooperation. The Moshup is normally situated in the centre of the village and is constructed at a place from which different approaches to the village can be seen. These dormitories are used as the sleeping houses by all the youngmen of the village from the age of ten till marriage. The Moshup, sometimes has its advisory board comprising of the old and experience people. They advice the young members on the matters of community life, hunting, etc. etc.. The old and infirm members of the village also came to Moshup in the day time to get-together and gossip. Guests and visitors are also entertained here and kebangs are also held here.

The RASHENG or the girls dormitories was meant for the gaiety, amusement and the art and regulation of love-making. This rasheng is purely secular in nature and has no religious significance. After reaching puberty, girls sleep in their respective clan Rashengs. During the day time it is generally vacant but at night spinning and weaving is carried out here. A senior experience girl normally supervises the Rasheng. It is a training institution for the girls in discipline, comradeship, responsibility and leadership. The romantic life of a girl starts here. Young boys from different clans come and join the girls at night and the affairs of the boys and girls of marriageable clans generally lead to marriage. Thus the Moshup and rasheng of the Adis are the central institution where the boys and girls received practical training in traditional mode of life.  

BirdEye View of Suspension Bridge, Pangin, Pasighat #Arunachal Pradesh#

BirdEye View of Suspension Bridge, Pangin, Pasighat #Arunachal Pradesh#.

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